Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor Diplomatic background War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility that each nation had been aware of, and planned for, since the s. Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China, and endeavored to secure enough independent resources to attain victory on the mainland.
The sneak attack sparked outrage in the American populace, news media, government and the world. On December 8, President Franklin D. Roosevelt addressed the American Congress, and the nation, to detail the attack. Yesterday, December 7th, -- a date which will live in infamy -- the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.
The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific.
Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in the American island of Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to our Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message.
And while this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or of armed attack. In that addressthe president asked Congress to pass a declaration of war.
Congress obliged, voted and passed the U. Declaration of War on Japanon the same day. The attack took place on a sunny Sunday morning. A minimal contingent of soldiers was on duty at the time. Most offices on the base were closed and many servicemen were on leave for the weekend.
New technology, including the new radar mounted on Opana Point, were in place, manned and functioning at the time of the attack. The incoming Japanese attack planes were detected by the radar and reported, but were mistaken for an incoming group of American planes due from the mainland that morning.
While on practice maneuvers outside the harbor that morning, an American destroyer spotted a Japanese submarine attempting to sneak into the harbor. The submarine was fired upon, immediately reported — and ignored. Pearl Harbor is located on the south coast of Oahu Island.
At the time, the naval base was about 22, acres in size. The American fleet was under the command of Admiral Husband E.
Kimmel and the ground troops were commanded by Lt. While there were veiled warnings and isolated events of Japanese hostilities in the weeks, days and hours ahead of the attack, no one in command at Pearl Harbor or in Washington, D. Effective cryptography and successful cryptanalysis were in their infancy at the time.
Under-funded, under-manned and under-equipped, cryptanalysts had been ordered to concentrate on Japanese diplomatic traffic, rather than naval messages. The nation would have had a much clearer picture of the Japanese military buildup and, with the warning provided by those messages, might have prevented the disaster of Pearl Harbor.
Indeed, on the morning of December 7, the Japanese ambassador in Washington, D. After laborious manual decoding and translation, the document was delivered later than the Japanese government had intended. The world was stunned by the news. Military leaders of the Axis countries, Germany, Italy and Japan, were hell-bent on world domination by military force.
Japan needed natural resources, especially oil, for its planned expansion. The Japanese had successfully invaded Manchuria in and China in Countdown to Pearl Harbor: The Twelve Days to the Attack - Kindle edition by Steve Twomey.
Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Countdown to Pearl Harbor: The Twelve Days to the Attack. On the morning of December 7, , the Japanese launched a surprise air attack on the U.S.
Naval Base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. After just two hours of bombing more than 2, Americans were dead, 21 ships * had either been sunk or damaged, and more than U.S.
aircraft destroyed. Pearl Harbor was the site of an event that changed not only the United States but the world. December 7th, marks the fateful day the Japanese launched a surprise attack on the unsuspecting base on the island of Oahu. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands on December 7, marked the official entrance of the United States into World War II.
Background During the s, Japan, having already annexed Korea in , sought to further expand its empire, particularly to gain natural resources. Shortly before on 7 December , Japanese forces launched an attack on Pearl Harbor. The intent was to undermine the ability of the U.S. Pacific Fleet to counter expansion of the Japanese empire in Southeast Asia.
On November 3, , Nagano presented a complete plan for the attack on Pearl Harbor to Hirohito. At the Imperial Conference on November 5, Hirohito approved the plan for a war against the United States, Great Britain and the Netherlands, scheduled to start at the beginning of December if an acceptable diplomatic settlement were not achieved before then.